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纽约伪造的工具:伪造的身份证,电话支票,伪造的信用卡…和弯曲的MetroCard也一样!

毫无争议的是,如果您使用伪造的身份证在曼哈顿租车,使用伪造的信用卡在布朗克斯的一家超市购物,或者使用伪造的支票在怀特普莱恩斯(Westchester County)的帐户付款),您将面临被控犯有伪造文书(重罪)的真实风险。好吧,如果那“forged instrument” is a MetroCard being used to swipe a turnstile in Brooklyn? 纽约 State Penal Law Section 170.25, 伪造文书的刑事拥有 in the Second Degree, establishes that if a person possesses a 锻造仪器, with knowledge it is forged 和 with intent to defraud, deceive, or injure another, that person may be guilty of this crime if he or she possesses a 锻造仪器 of a kind specified in 纽约 State Penal Law Section 170.10, Forgery in the Second Degree.

《刑法》第170.10(4)条规定,如果某人制造,完成或更改一份书面文书,而该文书看来是或代表一份已完成的书面文书,而不是先涉足整个章节。“代币,公共交通转让,证明或其他物品的制造和设计,目的是用作代替金钱用于购买财产或服务的价值符号,”他们在第二度犯有伪造罪。

审查“伪造”的所有适用部分,并 伪造文书的刑事拥有, the First Department (an appellate division that hears, among other things, cases that are appealed from the trial courts in Manhattan 和 the Bronx), recently addressed whether a bent or altered MetroCard may be as much of a 锻造仪器 as a completely bogus credit card. Recognizing that “更改了在某些MetroCard上合并了计算机数据的磁条,其中没有有效的车费,因此磁卡出现并被读取,以作为旋转门计算机允许乘车者进入的真实信息,”第一部门 People诉Mattocks 认为“很明显 。 。 。该MetroCard及其编码‘computer data,’用于以下目的‘传达或记录信息’并能够发挥优势。 。 。一个人的‘written instrument'” 和 therefore may be a 锻造仪器 if manipulated in a particular fashion.

Not only is this case significant because it clearly sets forth that a MetroCard may be a 锻造仪器, but the First Department also sent a clear message in its April 8, 2008 decision. Law enforcement has a very large net to corral all types of offenses that one might not think would fall into the category of 伪造文书的刑事拥有 or Forgery. This enormous net is precisely why you should retain an attorney who has significant experience in this always changing area of law such as 杰里米·萨兰德(Jeremy Saland) who, as a former prosecutor under Robert Morgenthau in the Manhattan District Attorney’的办公室在与伪造和伪造伪造文书的犯罪有关的犯罪方面拥有丰富的经验和培训。

只是一个旁注…还有一个很有趣的…2007年,共发出84,863张传票,以支付未支付的地铁和公共汽车票价。总计包括滥用MetroCard。